October: Preservation Month

 

On October 15, 1966, President Johnson signed the National Historic Preservation Act. For fifty years, the National Park Service has worked with state and local governments and organizations to identify, rehabilitate, and restore historic properties.. Here are just a few of the Oregon properties which have been added to the National Register of Historic Places. And some that might be.


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memorial coliseum  

Veterans Memorial Coliseum
by Brian Libby

National Register: 2009
National Treasure: 2016

Veterans Memorial Coliseum is a 12,000-seat arena on the east bank of the Willamette River in Portland. Originally known simply as Memorial Coliseum, it was renamed Veterans Memorial Coliseum in 2011 to re-emphasize the building's role as a tribute to veterans of World War II and the Korean War. Financed by an $8 million bond passed in 1954, the arena was completed in 1960 from a design by the Portland office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill.

Veterans Memorial Coliseum is a circular, freestanding, concrete seating bowl within a cube-shaped, glass-walled exterior. Despite being equivalent in size to four Portland city blocks, the building stands on just four columns, thanks to an intricate rooftop structural system. This allows the lobby to act as a winter garden-like space, with views through the glass exterior to the downtown skyline and river. One of the names originally considered for the building was the Glass Palace.


McLoughlin House Unit of Fort Vancouver National Historic Site
by Greg Shine

National Register: 1941

One of the grandest and most elaborate homes in Oregon when it was built in 1846, the McLoughlin House in Oregon City was home to Dr. John McLoughlin after his retirement as chief factor, overseeing Hudson’s Bay Company operations in the northwest from Fort Vancouver. Efforts to save the McLoughlin House, which is now a unit of the National Park system, helped pioneer the historic preservation movement in Oregon and the western United States.

The house was well suited for family life. George L. Boone, grandson of Daniel Boone, recalled that William McKay “often asked me to stay all night with him. Plenty of beds upstairs at the McLoughlin House.” Following McLoughlin’s death in 1857, members of the family continued to live in the house until 1867.

  mcloughlin house

cloud cap  

cloud cap

 

 

 

Cloud Cap Inn
by Katy Muldoon

No listing

Cloud Cap Inn stands at nearly 6,000 feet on Mount Hood's northeastern flank. Built in 1889, the one-story, crescent-shaped, log-and-shake inn was the mountain's first permanent resort.

Portlanders William M. Ladd, a banker, and Charles Erskine Scott Wood, an attorney and writer, enlisted architect William Whidden to design the approximately 3,500-square-foot inn. They hired Chinese laborers to improve a wagon road up the mountain and started a stagecoach company to transport guests. Hood River men cut the lumber and built the inn, named by Wood's wife, Nanny. In its heyday, Cloud Cap featured fine dining, flush toilets, room to sleep thirty guests, and a gasp-worthy view of the 11,239-foot summit.

 

Whidden and Lewis
by Brandon Spencer-Hartle

From 1890 to 1910, the Whidden and Lewis firm dominated architectural design in Portland. The firm designed commercial, educational, public, and residential buildings in a variety of materials and styles, contributing to an architectural legacy that today represents a distinctive period in Portland’s social and economic history.

Following the completion of the Portland Hotel in 1890, the partnership began a productive twenty-year period of designing buildings for Portland’s most prominent institutions and individuals. Whidden and Lewis were hired by William S. Ladd in 1890 to design the six-story stone-and-brick Concord Building at the corner of Southwest Second and Stark in Portland. 


Mount Angel Abbey Library
by Bruce Flath 

No listing

Housed in a building designed by Finnish architect Alvar Aalto, the Mount Angel Abbey Library is an important component of Mount Angel Abbey. Following the Benedictine tradition of study and reflection, the abbey had a library since its founding in 1882. In 1926, a fire destroyed most of the buildings and almost all of its books. Over time, many new volumes were purchased, but they were scattered among seven rooms throughout the abbey. In 1963, Father Barnabas Reasoner, the abbey's first professional library director, wrote to Aalto asking him to design a new building for the library. Aalto agreed, and the library was completed in 1970 with the help of funding from Howard and Jean Vollum. The building is one of only two that Aalto designed in the United States.

  library

benson house  

Simon Benson House
by Patricia Squire

National Register: 1983

The Simon Benson House, a Queen Anne-style house built in 1900 by timber baron Simon Benson, was originally located at Southwest 11th and Clay across from the Old Church in Portland. In January 2000, it was moved to its current location at Southwest Park and Montgomery, in the Park Blocks at Portland State University, where it now houses the university’s alumni association and visitor center.

Simon Benson, a Norwegian immigrant, was a timberman, innovator, and philanthropist. He promoted the Columbia Gorge Highway and donated land for parks in the Gorge. He also helped build Benson Polytechnic High School in Portland and gave the “Benson Bubbler” water fountains to the City of Portland. After the Benson family moved from the house in 1913, it served as a residence, a boarding house, and apartments. The house was placed on the historic register in 1983 but fell into disrepair and was condemned by the city in 1991. In 1998, City Commissioner Gretchen Kafoury assembled the Friends of Simon Benson House, which worked for several years to raise money to move and restore the house.


Egyptian Theatre
by Jessica Rondema

National Register: 2010

The Egyptian is a vaudeville-era theater located at 229 South Broadway in Coos Bay. In 1925, John C. Noble and Robert Marsden Jr. of the Coos Bay Amusement Company commissioned Portland architect Lee Arden Thomas and designer Carl F. Berg to convert the Motor Inn Garage and Service Station into a theater that would bring popular entertainment and culture to the southwest Oregon coast.

The theater was designed in the Egyptian revival architectural style, which was popular because of the discovery of King Tutankhamun's tomb in 1922. The interior of the theater features Egyptian décor and furnishings, including bronze pharaoh statues. The 1,274-seat theater included the latest equipment, hand-painted drops, and a $32,000 Wurlitzer theater organ, which is still stored in the theater today.

The Egyptian Theatre was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2010.

  egyptian theater 

ainsworth house  

hallock

     

Ainsworth House (Mount Pleasant)
by Richard Engeman

No listing

The Ainsworth House was built in 1851 on the high land east of Oregon City for Capt. John C. Ainsworth (1822-1893). Known as Mount Pleasant, the house was probably designed by one of Oregon’s earliest architects, Absalom B. Hallock. Mount Pleasant is regarded as a fine example of the Greek Revival style and is one of the oldest structures in the Portland area.

The Ainsworth House is built of milled lumber with a façade of four columns that form a portico and support a pedimented end gable. A second-story balcony is cantilevered under the portico. The entrance is flanked by tall, shuttered, double-hung windows that extend to the floor. The interior has a typical central hall plan, with a parlor, dining room, and kitchen on the left, and a staircase with a mahogany newel post and railing.

Mount Pleasant was rescued in the 1960s by Ruth McBride Powers, an early advocate of historic preservation.

 

Absalom Barrett Hallock
by Patricia Failing

Absalom Barrett Hallock was the first established professional architect in Portland. He designed scores of houses, churches, and civic and commercial buildings, many of the latter with innovative cast iron facades. An enterprising entrepreneur, Hallock also surveyed Oregon cities and patented designs for improving the performance of steam engines. He was elected to the Portland city council various times between 1857 and 1873, served as foreman for the Multnomah Engine Co. beginning in 1858, and was appointed as one of the city’s police commissioners in 1870.

Born and raised in Utica, New York, Hallock was the son of Amelia Barrett and Robert Titus Hallock (1806-1879), a homeopathic physician and leading member of the American spiritualist movement. A.B. Hallock left New York and settled in Oregon in 1850. Two years later he was awarded his first significant architectural commission—to design the Washington County Courthouse in Hillsboro. He and contractor William McMillan established the firm of Hallock & Company in 1852. 


old church   old church
     

The Old Church
by William C. Lawrence III

National Register: 1972

In 1882, fifty Presbyterians organized a new Portland congregation. They engaged architect Warren H. Williams to design a structure combining the spare simplicity of their denomination with the grandeur of their aspirations. Williams's rendering of classic ecclesiastical forms in wood produced a striking example of Carpenter Gothic architecture. A year under construction, the building was completed in 1883 at a cost of $36,000 on land donated by parishioner William S. Ladd. Originally, a rectory occupied the lot north of the church on Eleventh Street. The Old Church, on the northeast corner of Southwest Eleventh and Clay, is the oldest church building in Portland still standing on its original site. The Old Church was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. 

 

Warren H. Williams
by Eileen Fitzsimons

Between 1869 and 1887, Warren Haywood Williams provided sophisticated architectural design to commercial, residential, and institutional clients in the Pacific Northwest. His most successful buildings used ornament to reinforce a design's intrinsic proportion and rhythm. Surviving projects include Craigdarroch Castle in Victoria, B.C., the Old Church and Merchants' Hotel in Portland, and Villard Hall on the University of Oregon campus in Eugene.

 


watzek house   yeon
     

Aubrey Watzek House
by Leland Roth

National Register: 1974

The Aubrey Watzek House (1936-1938) in Portland’s west hills could be described as the most important early modern residence in Oregon. When a picture of the house was published by the Museum of Modern Art in New York in Art in Our Time (1939), and again in Built in USA: 1932-1944 (1944), the design helped define Modernism in architecture in the United States and earned its twenty-six-year-old designer, John Yeon, a national reputation.

Designed for Portland lumber magnate Aubrey R. Watzek, the house pushed the potential of wood as a structural and finish material both inside and out. A lawn on the east side of the house allows views of Mount Hood, but elsewhere native plant material was used, creating a lush woodland view from the floor-to-ceiling window-wall of the dining room. Yeon was one of the first designers to promote the use of native northwest plants as landscape materials. To mitigate the cold winter winds across the exposed hilltop site, He arranged the rooms of the house around an internal court, where a moderate microclimate encourages the early spring appearance of non-native flowers and flowering trees.

The Watzek house was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974 and it was designated a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service and the Secretary of the Interior in July 2011.

 

John Yeon
by Randy Gragg

Few architects have influenced the state of Oregon as broadly as John Yeon. A planner, conservationist, historic preservationist, art collector, and urban activist, as well as one of the state's most gifted residential designers, Yeon was a founder of the Northwest Regional Style of architecture and one of the earliest visionaries in the realization of the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area.

By the time he was twenty-one, he began making his mark on the state, borrowing on a life insurance policy to buy Chapman Point just south of Ecola State Park, saving what has become one of the Oregon Coast's most photographed vistas from the blight of a proposed dance hall. That same year, Governor Julius Meier appointed him to the first state Parks Commission. Three years later, the governor picked him to chair the Columbia Gorge Committee of the National Resources Board.


brick house  

Brick House Beautiful
by Morgen Young

No listing

Brick House Beautiful in Portland was built between 1922 and 1923 as a model home for the Standard Brick & Tile Company. Established in Portland in 1909, the company manufactured brick, tile, terra cotta, plaster, stucco, and other building materials. To distinguish its small Tudor Revival/English Cottage home, Standard Brick & Tile used a variety of building materials, including a multitude of brick patterns, textures, and colors on the exterior façades. The 1,599-square-foot Brick House Beautiful demonstrated the 1920s fascination with small house design, and the company’s advertising campaign stressed that a small house could still be modern. 

In the month after Brick House Beautiful opened to the public on January 28, 1923, thousands of people toured the house. It was advertised as being affordable, primarily because of the use of brick hollow-wall construction, hailed as “the greatest development in building construction in a century.”


Elk Rock Garden of the Bishop’s Close
by Eileen Fitzsimons

No listing

The Garden at Elk Rock (also known as The Bishop’s Close) on the Willamette River between Portland and Lake Oswego is arguably the oldest, largest, intact private garden in the Pacific Northwest. From 1897 until his death in 1957, businessman Peter Kerr developed Elk Rock, an estate whose purposes included food production, recreation, socializing, and ornamental gardening.

The garden at Elk Rock was the family’s private domain, but its reputation spread. It was opened to the public in 1959, after Peter Kerr’s death, when the property was given to the Episcopal Bishop of Oregon and renamed The Bishop's Close Garden at Elk Rock. Since its creation in 1897 the garden has survived due to the skills of dedicated professional gardeners who worked with Mr. Kerr during his lifetime and under the direction of a volunteer Garden Committee since 1959.

  elk rock

highway  

Columbia River Highway
by Robert Hadlow

National Historic Landmark, 2000

The Columbia River Highway, now known as the Historic Columbia River Highway, was a technical and civic achievement, successfully mixing ambitious engineering with a sensitivity to the magnificent landscape of the Columbia River Gorge. Entrepreneur and Good Roads promoter Samuel Hill teamed up with engineer and landscape architect Samuel C. Lancaster to create a highway that would make the idyllic natural setting accessible to tourists without unduly marring its beauty. When the first section of road opened in 1915, the Columbia River Highway became the first paved highway in the Pacific Northwest.

In 1984, the American Society of Civil Engineers designated the highway a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. The highway became a National Scenic Byway­-All American Road in 1999. A year later, much of the road and trail segments received its highest acclaim—designation as a National Historic Landmark, which recognized the highway as a significant national heritage resource. The designation recognized how, a decade after the initial completion of the highway, the National Park Service made Lancaster's design standards the cornerstone of its "Lying Lightly on the Land" philosophy for future national park roads and trails.


Montgomery Ward Park Building
by Kathy Tucker

National Register: 1985

The Montgomery Ward building in northwest Portland was a hallmark of modern industrial design when it opened on January 1, 1921. Built with fireproof, steel-reinforced concrete to be light and airy, the nine-story building housed a branch of Montgomery Ward & Company until 1982. The building, at 2701 Northwest Vaughn Street, is on the grounds of the 1905 Lewis and Clark Exposition. Company engineer W.H. McCaully created the design for the building, which was used in six other company buildings around the nation. The building has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1985.

  montgomery ward

 


paulina lake  

Paulina Lake Guard Station
by Les Joslin 

National Register: 1986

The Civilian Conservation Corps built Paulina Lake Guard Station in 1938 on the south shore of the larger of the two lakes within the Newberry Caldera on the Deschutes National Forest. As a satellite of a U.S. Forest Service ranger station, the guard station was staffed by a seasonal forest guard who assisted a district forest ranger. Located about thirty-five miles east of the crest of the Cascade Range and thirty-five road miles south of Bend, Paulina Lake Guard Station was and remains a remote Forest Service outpost.

Paulina Lake Guard Station remains in service as a Newberry National Volcanic Monument visitor center. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on April 11, 1986.

 


The Dalles Civic Auditorium and Veterans Memorial
by Joe Fitzgibbon

National Register: 1978

On April 7, 1922, four years after the armistice ended World War I, an emotional crowd packed into The Dalles Civic Auditorium and Veterans Memorial to dedicate the new three-story building. They were gathered to honor Wasco County’s nearly three thousand veterans, including members of the highly decorated 41st Infantry Division, known as the Sunset Division. Surrounded by flowers and floodlights, a forty-eight-piece military band played, politicians spoke, and the crowd joined in a round of patriotic songs. The celebration lasted late into the evening, with couples dancing across the maple-floor ballroom to popular songs played by a ten-piece orchestra. 

The Dalles Civic Auditorium and Veterans Memorial was designed by Portland architects Chester Houghtaling and Leigh Dougan, whose partnership from 1914 to 1925 included the Benton Hotel in Corvallis, the Elks Temple and Medical Arts Building in Portland, and the Old First National Bank Building in Salem. The Civic was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978, part of the downtown historic district.

  dalles civic

zimmerman house  

Zimmerman Heritage Farm
by Richard Engeman

National Register: 1986

The Zimmerman Heritage Farm in Gresham consists of an 1874 farmhouse on 5.98 acres, the remnant of a large dairy farm operated by the family of Jacob (1816-1899) and Lena (1827-1887) Zimmerman and their descendants. The Fairview-Rockwood Wilkes Historical Society operates the site as a historic house museum.

Both Jacob and Lena Zimmerman were born in Germany; they married in Philadelphia in 1845. With two children, they emigrated from Ohio to Oregon in 1851. In 1869, they purchased the donation land claim of Robert P. Wilmot and built a house there in 1874. By 1881, their son George (1852-1915) was running the farm. George married Jessie McCall in 1883; the couple had four daughters.

The farmhouse was remodeled in 1899, and by the 1920s the dairy farm encompassed some 660 acres, operated by granddaughter Jessie May and her husband Tom Millar. The property remained in family hands until the death of Isobel Zimmerman (1899-1992). The house and 1.58 acres surrounding it were placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. Isobel willed to the historical society a small parcel of land and the house, along with its furniture, clothing, documents, and the personal effects of three generations of the Zimmerman family.


 

Conde B. McCullough Memorial Bridge
by Judy Fleagle

National Register: 2005

Of all the bridges engineer Conde B. McCullough designed, the one on Highway 101 that spans Coos Bay was his favorite. This impressive bridge was renamed the Conde B. McCullough Memorial Bridge in 1947, the year after McCullough died. The bridge was part of the federally funded Coast Bridges Project, a Works Progress Administration (WPA) plan in 1934-1936 to build five bridges across coastal waterways in order to complete the Oregon Coast Highway. With its mix of Art Deco, Gothic, and Moderne design elements, the McCullough Memorial is one of the most recognizable icons of the Oregon coast. 

The bridge was dedicated on June 5-7, 1936, with a parade, music, banquets, and fireworks. In December 1986, a ship damaged the bridge’s understructure, causing a six-week bridge closure. Those who needed to cross Coos Bay suddenly realized the bridge’s significance, as a trip of a few minutes now took almost an hour. The Conde B. McCullough Memorial Bridge was entered into the National Register of Historic Places in 2005.

  conde bridge

sherman courthouse  

Sherman County Courthouse
by Tania Hyatt-Evenson

National Register: 1998

The Sherman County Courthouse in Moro is one of only three county courthouses in Oregon to be used continuously since its construction in the nineteenth century. The other two courthouses are in Benton and Polk Counties. Built in 1899, the Sherman County Courthouse is an example of understated Queen Anne architecture, a popular style for government and public buildings at the turn of the twentieth century.

The building was constructed during a time of great economic growth in Sherman County. By the mid-1880s, the county was one of the largest wheat producers in the state. In 1898, the Columbia Southern Railroad built a station stop at Moro, which allowed farmers to more easily transport their wheat, barley, sheep, and cattle to the Willamette Valley and beyond. The population of the county’s population boomed, from 150 residents in 1880 to 3,477 in 1900. 


Multnomah County Poor Farm
by Sharon Nesbit

National Register: 1990

The Multnomah County Poor Farm in Troutdale was built in 1911 to replace Multnomah County's first home for the destitute, the Hillside Farm in Portland's West Hills. The Hillside Farm, which housed the poor, ill, and disabled, was inspected in the fall of 1910 by a coalition of members from Portland charitable organizations who declared the crumbling building and its deplorable conditions to be disgraceful. That spurred Multnomah County Commissioners to hasten work on a progressive new institution at Troutdale intended to help the poor become self-sufficient through farming. This "back to the land" concept in social welfare was based on the belief that the poor could enjoy fresh air and country living while growing their own food.

 

  poor farm

elgin  

Elgin Opera House
by Joe Fitzgibbon

National Register: 1980

The Elgin Opera House, pride of the town of Elgin, Oregon (pop. 1,685), in the Blue Mountains of Union County, is now as beautiful and regal as it was at its dedication on July 4, 1912. The Opera House/City Hall was built to house administrative offices and promote the growth of culture in the area. From the hand-pressed tin ceiling and box seats with plush draperies framing the stage to tall wooden columns rising from the theater floor, all lit by chandeliers, the interior spoke of elegance and comfort. With a 35-foot fly-loft capable of hanging two dozen backdrops, a slanted floor providing great eye-lines, and superb acoustics, the auditorium resembled a small but first-class European opera house. Municipal offices were constructed on the main floor, city council chambers upstairs, and a tiny jail in the basement. Architect John L. Slater of La Grande designed the two-story, colonial revival brick and stone structure, which was completed at a cost of $15,000.


Morrow County Courthouse
by Sarah Munro

National Register: 1980

 

The Morrow County Courthouse is one of the oldest continuously operating courthouses in Oregon. Edgar M. Lazarus (1868-1939), a native of Baltimore, Maryland, who later designed Vista House (1916-1918) in the Columbia River Gorge, was selected as the architect. The design of the new courthouse is primarily in the American Renaissance tradition popular between 1876 and 1917. Classical features include the cornice around the top of the building and the two draped female statues on columns that flank the building’s entrance. Brothers Laurence and Louis Monterastelli created the statues for the building and cut and trimmed the dark blue basalt for the exterior. The basalt came from A.W. Osmin’s quarry, about three miles from Heppner. The light-colored trim stone was probably from eastern Oregon. The Morrow County Courthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.

  morrow courthouse

congregation best israel  

Congregation Beth Israel
by Elaine S. Friedman

National Register (Temple Beth Israel): 1979

Congregation Beth Israel (CBI) is the oldest and most prominent Jewish Reform congregation in Oregon. Temple Beth Israel, the congregation's home on Northwest Flanders Street in Portland, is an impressive, Byzantine-inspired building that is on the National Register of Historic Places.

The congregation had its beginning at a meeting of eight people in May 1858; twenty-one people became original members the following month. The small congregation held weekly services in Burke’s Hall, a noisy and unadorned loft above a blacksmith shop and a livery stable at First and Morrison. In 1859, the year that Oregon became a state, the congregation decided to build its first synagogue. Opened in 1861 at Fifth and Oak, the Gothic-style building could seat 200 people. On December 29, 1923, an arsonist set fire to the synagogue, destroying it completely and setting the stage for CBI’s biggest undertaking yet: the building of today's Temple Beth Israel.

The new synagogue, at Northwest 19th and Flanders streets, was dedicated in April 1928. Its soaring, hundred-foot dome, with a Star of David oculus, was inspired by the Steelerstrasse Synagogue in Essen, Germany. With 18 stained-glass windows, a 4,500-pipe Reuters organ, a circular menorah window, and an elaborate sanctuary seating 1,000 people, Temple Beth Israel is one of the most notable buildings in Oregon.


Kam Wah Chung
by Jodi Varon

 

National Historic Landmark, 2005

The Kam Wah Chung and Company (Jin huachang ‘Golden Flower of Prosperity’) was a Chinese-owned grocery, dry goods store, and clinic in John Day. Built as a trading post along The Dalles Military Road in about 1866-1867, the store enjoyed a vigorous Chinese clientele and provided a gathering place for the Chinese community. It also functioned as a temple and joss house, unofficial post office, library, business and interpretive center, contract labor pool, automobile dealership, social club, dormitory, and apothecary shop. Established in 1871 as a contractor of Chinese labor, The Kam Wah Chung and Company operated during the height of Grant County’s influx of Chinese miners and laborers (1870-1910).

 

  kam wah Chung

mountain view  

Mountain View Cemetery
by Ann M. Nicgorski

National Register: 1994

Mountain View Cemetery, established in 1904, was a fashionable burial site for prominent Ashland citizens during much of the twentieth century. The cemetery consists of two parcels of land at the intersection of Normal Avenue and Ashland Street (U.S. Highway 66) in southeast Ashland.

As early as 1889, city officials wanted to create a new cemetery because the Ashland Cemetery, established in 1880, was running out of room. It was not until 1904, however, that the city was able to purchase ten acres north of what was then called Klamath Falls Road, land that had originally been part of the H.C. Willis Donation Land Claim. Three years later, Ashland Lodge #45 of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows purchased two acres just south of Klamath Falls Road for a cemetery. In 1924, they sold a portion of that land to the Ashland Memorial Mausoleum Association for the construction of a mausoleum. In 1932, the Lodge deeded the rest of its burial ground to the city, and that land became part of Mountain View Cemetery.

The original ten-acre north parcel and the two-acre south parcel were placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994.


Ladd’s Addition
by Carl Abbott

National Register: 1988
Historic Conservation District, 1977    

Ladd's Addition is a streetcar-era neighborhood in southeast Portland with a street and park plan that is unique among neighborhoods of comparable age in the United States. The plan for the neighborhood, which is located between Southeast Hawthorne and Division Streets and Southeast Twelfth and Twentieth Avenues, has been protected and preserved without significant change since it was platted in 1891.

Banker and investor William S. Ladd acquired the tract through foreclosure and a sheriff’s sale in 1878 and made it part of a Portland-area real-estate empire that grew to approximately 4,000 acres. The layout includes two through streets that bisect the neighborhood on lines orthogonal to the general city street grid, two through diagonal streets, and sixteen shorter streets. Five park spaces interrupt the street pattern. The plat filed by the Ladds dedicated the park spaces to the City of Portland “upon the express condition that the said tracts shall not be cut, crossed, or bisected by any way or rights of way for any street railway.”

  ladds addition

hanley farm  

Hanley Farm
by Richard Engeman

National Register: 1983

The Hanley Farm, situated along Jackson Creek about two miles northeast of Jacksonville, is a historic farmstead owned by the Southern Oregon Historical Society. Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983, the Hanley Farm has a main residence, two large barns, a stone springhouse, and a number of outbuildings. For nearly a century, the farm was operated entirely by Hanley women, notably Alice Hanley and her nieces Claire, Martha, and Mary. All of them played prominent roles in Jackson County horticulture and in the preservation of southern Oregon history, particularly in the establishment and operation of the Southern Oregon Historical Society. 

 


Peter French Round Barn
by Leland Roth

National Register: 1971

Standing clear on a low rise in a sagebrush-dotted expanse of the eastern Oregon rangeland is the round barn built by Peter French and his P Ranch cowhands (vaqueros or Californios who came north from the central valley) in 1883 or 1884. The structure, located about thirteen miles south of Malheur Lake and fifty miles southeast of Burns, is not a barn in the usual sense but a large, enclosed corral. Originally one of three such barns on the P Ranch, it is the sole surviving round barn of a cattle and horse-raising operation that once spread over more than 150,000 acres in the Blitzen Valley.

The barn was built to provide covered space for training and exercising horses during the winter. The French livestock operation in the 1880s and 1890s was so extensive that nearly three hundred horse and mule colts were born each year; and while some were sold, most were trained for use on the sprawling ranch. During the bitter winter season, young horses and mules could be trained inside the barn for riding and freight hauling, and mature horses could be exercised in the covered circular paddock. 

  french round barn

astoria column  

Astoria Column 
by Janet Filips

National Register: 1974

The Astoria Column is an art-covered pillar made of concrete that reaches 125 feet skyward from Coxcomb Hill, overlooking Astoria and the Columbia River. Its observation platform offers a panoramic view for the many visitors who climb the 164 steps of its winding staircase. At its dedication on July 22, 1926, the Astoria Column was described as the “greatest of western monuments.”

The Astoria Column is the world’s only large-scale pictorial frieze in sgraffito (skra-fe-to), an Old World art form that involves cutting outlines through a wet plaster layer to reveal a dark base coat. The Column also depicts some of the events of American exploration and development of the Northwest. It is the crowning monument in a series of historical markers that followed the route of the Great Northern Railroad.

Over the years, the Column has become an Oregon icon and a source of identity and pride for Astorians. It was listed on the National Register for Historic Places in 1974. 

 


Barlow Road
by Nathan Pedersen

National Register: 1992
National Historic Trail, 1978

 

The Barlow Road is a historic wagon road that created a new route on the Oregon Trail in 1846. Until the road was opened, the overland portion of the Oregon Trail effectively ended in The Dalles. Mount Hood, and the Cascade Range in general, was an insurmountable obstacle to early wagon trains. Settlers who had survived the nearly 2,000-mile journey from Independence, Missouri, found The Dalles crowded with other emigrants awaiting expensive and dangerous passage down the Columbia River. They paid barge operators to float their wagons down the river while they walked the path along its banks or drove their livestock over Lolo Pass, a narrow, high-elevation pass ten miles northwest of Mount Hood. The Barlow Road, although rough and steep, was passable by large wagon trains, and its construction significantly increased emigration to Oregon.

  barlow


Cast iron buildings in Portland
by Morgen Young

Portland is home to the second largest collection of cast iron architecture in the United States, just behind New York City’s historic Soho District. Cast iron-fronted buildings were constructed in Portland between the 1850s and 1880s, with a large concentration along the westside waterfront.

Though iron had existed as a building material for centuries, cast-iron architecture did not come into fashion in the United States until the 1840s. Contributing to a nationwide building boom, cast iron replaced masonry because it was less expensive and less labor intensive to produce. Pre-fabricated iron pieces allowed buildings to be constructed more quickly with less labor and fewer costs. Thin cast-iron columns soon replaced heavy masonry piers, allowing natural light to flood new edifices. Cast-iron ornamental elements offered nearly endless decorative opportunities, and many buildings had ornate facades that demonstrated their owners' material success. Cast iron became so popular in Portland that 90 percent of commercial buildings used the material in their construction between 1854 and 1889.

 

smith block   smith   new market


Terra Cotta Buildings in Portland
by Morgen Young

Many prominent Portland architects built terra cotta structures, including A.E. Doyle, Whidden & Lewis, and William Knighton. The U.S. National Bank on Southwest Stark Street is an example of Doyle’s work. This classically influenced structure is faced entirely in glazed terra tiles meant to simulate granite. Knighton’s trademark decorative details can be seen at the Governor Hotel at Southwest Tenth and Alder.

Terra cotta buildings in Portland span a number of architectural styles. Many contain classical influences, including columns with ornate capitals, friezes, and freestanding ornaments such as egg-and-dart, rosettes, and cartouches. The Odd Fellows Building at Southwest Tenth and Salmon, for example, contains gothic elements, and the

The Benson Hotel, on Southwest Broadway and Oak, is an example of French Baroque, with its mansard roof decorated in terra cotta tiles meant to mimic weathered copper. The Charles F. Berg Building on Southwest Broadway is a rare example of Art Deco terra cotta architecture. The 1930 façade is comprised of polychrome terra cotta in shades of black and teal, with decorative features like rain clouds reflecting the Pacific Northwest.

 

 

odd fellows   us bank